You may not reproduce, edit, translate, distribute, publish or host this document in any way with out the permission of Professor Hawking. This is to allow correct pronunciation and timing by a speech synthesiser. In this talk, I would like to speculate a little, on the development of life in the universe, and in particular, the development of intelligent life.
You may not reproduce, edit, translate, distribute, publish or host this document in any way with out the permission of Professor Hawking.
This is to allow correct pronunciation and timing by a speech synthesiser. In this talk, I would like to speculate a little, on the development of life in the universe, and in particular, the development of intelligent life.
I shall take this to include the human race, even though much of its behaviour through out history, has been pretty stupid, and not calculated to aid the survival of the species. This observation can be elevated to the status of a law, the so-called Second Law of Thermodynamics.
This says that the total amount of disorder, or entropy, in the universe, always increases with time. However, the Law refers only to the total amount of disorder. The order in one body can increase, provided that the amount of disorder in its surroundings increases by a greater amount.
This is what happens in a living being.
One can define Life to be an ordered system that can sustain itself against the tendency to disorder, and can reproduce itself. That is, it can make similar, but independent, ordered systems.
To do these things, the system must convert energy in some ordered form, like food, sunlight, or electric power, into disordered energy, in the form of heat. In this way, the system can satisfy the requirement that the total amount of disorder increases, while, at the same time, increasing the order in itself and its offspring.
A living being usually has two elements: In biology, these two parts are called genes and metabolism. But it is worth emphasising that there need be nothing biological about them.
For example, a computer virus is a program that will make copies of itself in the memory of a computer, and will transfer itself to other computers.
Thus it fits the definition of a living system, that I have given. Instead, it reprograms the metabolism of the host computer, or cell. Some people have questioned whether viruses should count as life, because they are parasites, and can not exist independently of their hosts.
But then most forms of life, ourselves included, are parasites, in that they feed off and depend for their survival on other forms of life. I think computer viruses should count as life.
Maybe it says something about human nature, that the only form of life we have created so far is purely destructive. Talk about creating life in our own image.
I shall return to electronic forms of life later on. One can speculate that one might have life with some other chemical basis, such as silicon, but carbon seems the most favourable case, because it has the richest chemistry.
That carbon atoms should exist at all, with the properties that they have, requires a fine adjustment of physical constants, such as the QCD scale, the electric charge, and even the dimension of space-time.
If these constants had significantly different values, either the nucleus of the carbon atom would not be stable, or the electrons would collapse in on the nucleus. At first sight, it seems remarkable that the universe is so finely tuned. Maybe this is evidence, that the universe was specially designed to produce the human race.
However, one has to be careful about such arguments, because of what is known as the Anthropic Principle. One can apply the Anthropic Principle, in either its Strong, or Weak, versions.
For the Strong Anthropic Principle, one supposes that there are many different universes, each with different values of the physical constants. In a small number, the values will allow the existence of objects like carbon atoms, which can act as the building blocks of living systems.
Since we must live in one of these universes, we should not be surprised that the physical constants are finely tuned. The strong form of the Anthropic Principle is not very satisfactory.
What operational meaning can one give to the existence of all those other universes?Counter argument to the teleological argument based on Complexity or Improbability. The more the complexity of the universe or the improbability of its actual orderings then the less likely it is that it had or has an intelligent designer.
Modern pop culture declares that atheism is a "scientific" worldview. But most of the key contributors to modern science were theists and often Christian. Design Arguments for the Existence of God.
Design arguments are empirical arguments for the existence of regardbouddhiste.com arguments typically, though not always, proceed by attempting to identify various empirical features of the world that constitute evidence of intelligent design and inferring God's existence as the best explanation for these features.
Two other historically important "proofs" are the ontological argument and the moral argument. The former, made famous by St. Anselm in the eleventh century and defended in another form by Descartes, holds that it would be logically contradictory to deny God's existence.
If only 10 intelligent life forms make it to our stage of existence in the lifetime of a large spiral galaxy, then that would mean -- in all likelihood -- we're only something like 4 intelligent species in, for the Milky Way.
The arguments for God's existence are variously classified and entitled by different writers, but all agree in recognizing the distinction between a priori, or deductive, and a .