Learn how to look at some of the ways you might structure an evaluation and how to choose the way that best meets your needs. What do we mean by a design for the evaluation? Why should you choose a design for your evaluation?
To determine what the effects of the program are: Assess skills development by program participants Compare changes in behavior over time Decide where to allocate new resources Demonstrate that accountability requirements are fulfilled Use information from multiple evaluations to predict the likely effects of similar programs To affect participants: Reinforce messages of the program Stimulate dialogue and raise awareness about community issues Broaden consensus among partners about program goals Teach evaluation skills to staff and other stakeholders Gather success stories Support organizational change and improvement Questions The evaluation needs to answer specific questions.
Drafting questions encourages stakeholders to reveal what they believe the evaluation should answer.
That is, what questions are more important to stakeholders? The process of developing evaluation questions further refines the focus of the evaluation. Methods The methods available for an evaluation are drawn from behavioral science and social research and development.
Three types of methods are commonly recognized. They are experimental, quasi-experimental, and observational or case study designs.
Experimental designs use random assignment to compare the effect of an intervention between otherwise equivalent groups for example, comparing a randomly assigned group of students who took part in an after-school reading program with those who didn't.
Quasi-experimental methods make comparisons between groups that aren't equal e. Observational or case study methods use comparisons within a group to describe and explain what happens e.
No design is necessarily better than another. Evaluation methods should be selected because they provide the appropriate information to answer stakeholders' questions, not because they are familiar, easy, or popular. The choice of methods has implications for what will count as evidence, how that evidence will be gathered, and what kind of claims can be made.
Because each method option has its own biases and limitations, evaluations that mix methods are generally more robust.
Over the course of an evaluation, methods may need to be revised or modified. Circumstances that make a particular approach useful can change.
For example, the intended use of the evaluation could shift from discovering how to improve the program to helping decide about whether the program should continue or not.
Thus, methods may need to be adapted or redesigned to keep the evaluation on track. Agreements Agreements summarize the evaluation procedures and clarify everyone's roles and responsibilities. An agreement describes how the evaluation activities will be implemented.
Elements of an agreement include statements about the intended purpose, users, uses, and methods, as well as a summary of the deliverables, those responsible, a timeline, and budget. The formality of the agreement depends upon the relationships that exist between those involved.
For example, it may take the form of a legal contract, a detailed protocol, or a simple memorandum of understanding. Regardless of its formality, creating an explicit agreement provides an opportunity to verify the mutual understanding needed for a successful evaluation.
It also provides a basis for modifying procedures if that turns out to be necessary. As you can see, focusing the evaluation design may involve many activities. For instance, both supporters and skeptics of the program could be consulted to ensure that the proposed evaluation questions are politically viable.
A menu of potential evaluation uses appropriate for the program's stage of development could be circulated among stakeholders to determine which is most compelling.Teaching Materials Using Case Studies by Claire Davis and Elizabeth Wilcock. A booklet in the 12 Guides to Lecturers series published by the UK Centre for Materials Education.
Evaluating Your Teaching. The structure of the case study work is also explained to the students in terms of how the practical and group sessions operate. When. Your goal in evaluating your effort is to get the most reliable and accurate information possible, given your evaluation questions, the nature of your program, what your participants will consent to, your time constraints, and your resources.
organizational climate (Grojean, Resick, Dickson, & Smith, ). In many cases, effective leaders possess both a concern for the task while establishing an individual relationship with their employees.
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