If you already know which system to use, follow one of the links above to see sample citations for a variety of common sources. If you are unsure about which system to use, read on. Notes and Bibliography or Author-Date?
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Chicago Manual of Style 17th Edition Summary: This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in The other documentation style, the Author-Date System, is nearly identical in content but slightly different in form and is preferred in the social sciences.
This manual, which presents what is commonly known as the "Turabian" citation style, follows the two CMOS patterns of documentation but offers slight modifications suited to student texts. Notes and Bibliography NB in Chicago style The Chicago NB system is often used in the humanities and provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through footnote or endnote citation in their writing and through bibliography pages.
It also offers writers an outlet for commenting on those cited sources. The NB system is most commonly used in the discipline of history.
The proper use of the NB system can protect writers from accusations of plagiarism, which is the intentional or accidental uncredited use of source material created by others.
Most importantly, properly using the NB system builds credibility by demonstrating accountability to source material. Introduction to Notes In the NB system, you should include a note endnote or footnote each time you use a source, whether through a direct quote, paraphrase, or summary.
Footnotes will be added at the end of the page on which the source is referenced, and endnotes will be compiled at the end of each chapter or at the end of the entire document. In either case, a superscript number corresponding to a note with the bibliographic information for that source should be placed in the text following the end of the sentence or clause in which the source is referenced.
If a work includes a bibliography, which is typically preferred, then it is not necessary to provide full publication details in notes. If you cite the same source again, or if a bibliography is included in the work, the note need only include the surname of the author, a shortened form of the title if more than four wordsand page number s.
However, in a work that does not include a bibliography, it is recommended that the full citation be repeated when it is first used in a new chapter. In the NB system, the footnote or endnote itself begins with the appropriate full-sized number, followed by a period and then a space.
Introduction to Bibliographies In the NB system, the bibliography provides an alphabetical list of all sources used in a given work. This page, most often titled Bibliography, is usually placed at the end of the work preceding the index.
It should include all sources cited within the work and may sometimes include other relevant sources that were not cited but provide further reading. Although bibliographic entries for various sources may be formatted differently, all included sources books, articles, websites, etc.
If no author or editor is listed, the title or, as a last resort, a descriptive phrase may be used. Though useful, a bibliography is not required in works that provide full bibliographic information in the notes. Common Elements All entries in the bibliography will include the author or editor, compiler, translatortitle, and publication information.
If an author is not listed first, this principle applies to compilers, translators, etc. Titles Titles of books and journals are italicized. Titles of articles, chapters, poems, etc. Publication Information The year of publication is listed after the publisher or journal name.
Punctuation In a bibliography, all major elements are separated by periods.
Please note that this OWL resource provides basic information regarding the formatting of entries used in the bibliography.especially history. Specific guidelines for formatting a paper in Chicago Style are outlined in manuals such as the 16th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in September , and the 7th edition of A Pocket Guide to Writing in History by Mary Lynn Rampolla, which was issued in If it is a Chicago style paper no title page, you begin your numeration from the first page from number one.
You put the number next to the author’s name. Usually, your Chicago style research paper will have three sections: the title or cover page, the main body, and the bibliography. for research papers in history and for instructors who favor this style in other disciplines.
programs require that you put the footnotes in as you write. Footnotes are single-spaced with Handbook for Chicago (Turabian) Style Term Paper. Title. Jul 29, · How to Do Footnotes.
Write your complete paper, including a list of references, before inserting footnotes. 2. Go to the end of the sentence you want to footnote. check with your professor or organization about whether the paper should be written in APA, MLA or Chicago style.
Then, ensure your entire paper and footnotes 84%(83). The Chicago Style of writing is often required for history papers, although this style is also called Turabian Style when referring to research papers.
Papers written in Chicago or Turabian style usually contain footnotes or end notes. The notes can contain additional content, acknowledgments. To do that, you need to provide complete citations in a consistent citation style. Leading publishers of historical scholarship (such as the American Historical Review and the Journal of American History) require Chicago Manual style footnotes.