According to Theodor Kraus, "The root of the word Pompeii would appear to be the Oscan word for the number five, pompe, which suggests that either the community consisted of five hamlets or, perhaps, it was settled by a family group gens Pompeia.
Click to print Opens in new window Excavations at Pompeii began in So, what is new in Pompeii? Pompeii and its neighbour Herculaneum are among the oldest archaeological sites in the world, but today they risk destruction by exposure to the elements, tourist traffic, and time.
Yet these are not new problems. As early as the 18th century, excavators applied varnish to wall-paintings in an attempt to prevent their decay; different types of conservation work have taken place on site ever since.
However, the collapse of part of the Schola Armaturarum inand subsequent minor collapses, have highlighted the problem to the world and today it has become a politically important issue.
The challenge now is to ensure the preservation of these sites while continuing investigations into the town, its inhabitants, and its history. And what more is there to learn?
Large-scale open-air excavations at Pompeii came to an end in the s because the authorities recognised that further excavation would only make the conservation problem worse. But at the same time, funding cuts and other management problems meant that day-to-day maintenance halted.
Conservation took place in the best decorated houses, but elsewhere on site was conducted on an emergency basis. Consequently the conservation problem worsens each year.
In the meantime, scholars continue their work at Pompeii and at other nearby sites, but, partly in reaction to the conservation crisis and to site-management issues, the way that they study these sites has changed.
In the s teams were given an excavated insula housing block to study its evolution through stratigraphic excavation beneath the AD 79 floor levels, its architectural development through examination of its walls and paintings, and its contents through study of the original excavation reports and inventories.
Most of the research carried out at Pompeii today is smaller in scale, informed by conservation and with the explicit aim of studying and recording as much as possible before it disappears forever.
While stratigraphic excavations beneath the AD 79 levels are possible, many teams now adopt non-invasive methods of study. Scratching the surface During years of excavation atPompeii, about 44ha of ruins including 20,m2 of wall paintings have been uncovered, and more than 11, painted or incised inscriptions found.
Rebecca Benefiel, of Washington and Lee University, is documenting the graffiti scratched on the fragile plaster walls before they disappear. Previously studied as stand-alone texts, her innovative approach examines their spatial and social context.
She has shown that graffiti tend to cluster in visible and highly trafficked areas of houses, and was clearly an accepted social activity rather than a furtive and anonymous act of vandalism. And everyone was at it: Messages may be informative, comic, or even enigmatic: They used state-of-the-art equipment to create photomosaics of its entire m length that record the current condition of its facades.
When the street was partially excavated between andphotography was being used for the first time to document the work.
Often, workmen and supervisors were included in these scenes. These photomosaics provide a stark yet hauntingly beautiful contrast to such earlier studies, and will form an invaluable digital archive for scholars studying the ancient street and conservators aiming to preserve it.
A brief history of Pompeii Pompeii may have been founded by local Oscans, but from an early period both Greeks and Etruscans took an interest in its development, undoubtedly because of its prime location on the Bay of Naples.
By the end of the 5th century the town had been conquered by the Samnites, but by the 2nd century it was already heavily influenced byRome, in terms of both political structure and public buildings.
Pompeii became a Roman colony, the Colonia Cornelia Veneria Pompeianorum, and Sulla settled many of his veteran soldiers there.
The town prospered during the 1st century AD, until it was flattened by an earthquake in AD Repairs were still underway in AD 79 when Vesuvius erupted. Digital revolution Photography and computer reconstruction of images is playing an important part in the Oplontis Project, at the Villa of Poppaea, a couple of miles outside Pompeii.Pompei and Herculaneum Religious Archaeology Being one of the most fascinating and cataclysmic events in Ancient Rome, The violent eruption of Mount Vesuvius ultimately destroyed a set of unique and culturally significant societies from Rome.
The Special Superintendency for the Archaeological Heritage of Naples and Pompeii is the semi-autonomous body charged with the research, conservation and management of these iconic Vesuvian archaeology sites. The project for the protection and enhancement of Pompeii Archaeological Area.
The archaeological area of the HERCULANEUM EXCAVATION SITES is a state-owned property that falls within the sphere of competence of the Special Superintendency for the Archaeological Heritage of Naples and Pompeii, a decentralized body of the Ministry of Cultural Heritage and Activities.
Religion was an active part of everyday life of the citizens of Pompeii and Herculaneum and the worship of offerings was performed in order to keep the Gods satisfied, to ensure the prosperity and safety of all aspects of ones life, and ones family.
Pompeii, Hercolaneum, and Vesuvius: Archaeological Tour For fans of archaeology and the great outdoors, this full day driving tour departing from Sorrento or Naples by one of the luxury Eurolimo sedans or vans includes visits to the Pompeii and Herculaneum archaeological sites, and a drive up the slope of Mount Vesuvius!5/5(35).