Image copyright Getty Images Image caption Trees are a big asset for Montreal kilometres away in Montreal, the city is looking to artificial intelligence to get the most out of one of its most valuable assets - trees. Earlier this year Infra. AI piloted a program that helped identify ailing trees on city streets.
I see formative assessment as an ongoing exchange between a teacher and his or her students designed to help students grow as vigorously as possible and to help teachers contribute to that growth as fully as possible.
When I hear formative assessment reduced to a mechanism for raising end-of-year-test scores, it makes me fear that we might reduce teaching and learning to that same level.
Both its alignment with current content goals and its immediacy in providing insight about student understanding are crucial to helping teacher and student see how to make near-term adjustments so the progression of learning can proceed as it should. I worry when I hear educators say they have purchased formative assessments to give once a quarter or once a month to keep tabs on student achievement.
The best teachers work persistently to benefit the learners in their charge. Because teaching is too complex to invite perfection, even the best teachers will miss the mark on some days, but in general, teachers who use sound formative assessment aspire to the following 10 principles.
Help students understand the role of formative assessment. Students often feel that assessment equals Tomorrow s leader term paper equals grade equals judgment. That association leads many discouraged students to give up rather than to risk another failure.
It causes many high-achieving students to focus on grades rather than learning, and on safe answers rather than thoughtful ones. Mistakes are how we figure out how to get better at what we are doing. They help us understand our thinking. Therefore, many assessments in this class will not be graded.
That belief needs to be a cornerstone ethic in the classroom. Begin with clear KUDs. The first step in creating a worthy formative assessment occurs well before the teacher develops the assessment. It happens when the teacher begins to map out curriculum.
At that point, the teacher asks the pivotal question, "What is most important for students to Know, Understand, and be able to Do as a result of this segment of learning?
But with clarity about KUDs, the teacher is able to focus curricular decisions squarely on what matters most for student success. KUDs also lay the groundwork for pre-assessment and ongoing assessment. A pre-assessment provides a "dipstick check" of student status as a unit begins. It need not be wholly comprehensive, but rather should sample student standing in relation to the material so the teacher has a reasonable approximation of who may experience difficulty, who may show early mastery, and who may bring misunderstandings to the unit of study.
Alignment between KUDs and formative assessments—and later, between formative assessment results and instructional plans—is imperative if formative assessment is to fulfill its promise. Make room for student differences.
For example, a student who is learning English may be able to draw and label a diagram of the relationship between density and buoyancy but not write a paragraph explaining it. Assessment formats and conditions can vary as long as all forms of the assessment measure the same KUDs.
Although formative assessments should rarely be graded, students do need useful feedback. Feedback needs to help the student know what to do to improve the next time around. They trust that teachers will use the assessments to help them achieve, and they know that there will soon be follow-up opportunities for them to use the feedback in improving their performance.
Feedback should be clear, focused, and appropriately challenging for the learner. As teachers, we sometimes feel our job is to mark every error on a paper.
Not only is that practice time-consuming, robbing us of time we could more potently use for instructional planning, but a sea of "edits" without clarity about which comments matter most, how they connect, or what to do next is likely to evoke a negative response from a student.
To realize its power, feedback must result in a student thinking about how to improve—the ideal is to elicit a cognitive response from the learner, not an emotional one Wiliam, Praise and shame shut down learning far more often than they catalyze it. The teacher sees where a student is in a learning progression and points the way ahead for that student.
In other words, feedback is differentiated, pointing each learner toward actions that are challenging but achievable for that learner. For example, a teacher who is working with students on using sources to support an opinion provides criteria for the effective use of resources for this purpose.
In writing an opinion piece, some students may have difficulty synthesizing ideas from multiple resources. A second group of students may synthesize proficiently but rely solely on obvious interpretations of text.
To move ahead, the first group of students needs specific guidance on how to synthesize ideas from resources. The second group needs direction in plumbing ideas more deeply. Both groups will receive feedback in the area of using resources to support an opinion, but their feedback will focus on aspects of the skill set that move them to their next step in development.
Formative assessment should permeate a class period.Excerpt from Term Paper: The Team That Is Not a Team The main teamwork problems that are occurring among the team members is that there is a lack of communication, a lack of clarity in terms of what the team’s goals are—and therefore no sense of how the team is to be successful.
Nursing term paper on: Nursing Leadership Attributes. Number of Pages 3 A 3 page research paper that discusses nursing leadership attributes. The writer defines leadership and then discusses how thinking pro-actively and conducting risk assessment can facilitate a nurse showing leadership and being a successful advocate for patients.
It also has long-term effects such as developmental and cognitive delays. Low birth weight can be caused by the mother’s lack of prenatal care, poor diet and stress (Strunk, ).
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